Workforce Planning and Takt Time – Takt Time Tutorial – Episode 3

The Workforce Planning and the Takt Time are related. In this video, I will explain with examples how to plan the workforce.

🔖 Takt Time Tutorial

What is Takt Time

Takt Time Bar Chart

Takt Time Tutorial Playlist

✏️ Here the transcript of the video

▶ How can you plan your workforce to ensure that the production meets the customer’s request?

Well, Takt Time can also be used for workforce planning.

In the previous video, I showed you a hypothetical production line with cycle times, but I didn’t make a distinction between manual time and automatic time.

By manual time, I mean the time of the operation in which the man touches the product.

By automatic time, I mean the time in which the man does not touch the product and it is only the machine that works without any human intervention.

To plan a workforce, it is essential to divide the cycle time into these 2 contributions.

▶ Let’s learn more with an example:

Let’s go back to the production line proposed in the previous video.

We divide the cycle time of each operation into the 2 contributions: Automatic and Manual.

To find out these times in a reliable way, I recommend a direct observation of the production process at least 5 or 10 times.

After the observation, let’s imagine filling out a table.

Welding Cycle Time = 50 Seconds = 40 Seconds Automatic Time + 10 Seconds Manual Time

Benching Cycle Time = 120 Seconds = 0 Seconds Automatic Time + 120 Seconds Manual Time

Painting Cycle Time = 180 Seconds = 160 Seconds Automatic Time + 20 Seconds Manual Time

Assembly Cycle Time = 100 Seconds = 0 Seconds Automatic Time + 100 Seconds Manual Time

Looking at the table, it is simply calculated that for the production of one piece, there is a need for 250 seconds of human work.

▶ Workforce Planning Formula

Once this information has been calculated, it is possible to proceed with the calculation of the workforce required in relation to the customer demand and therefore to the Takt Time.

The mathematical formula is as follows:

Workforce = Sum of manual times / Takt Time

Let’s see some calculation examples for this production line with different Takt Time scenarios.

If the Takt Time = 125 seconds

The necessary workforce will be equal to 250 Seconds / 125 Seconds = 2 People.

If the Takt Time = 250 seconds

The necessary workforce will be equal to 250 Seconds / 250 Seconds = 1 Person.

If the Takt Time = 100 seconds

The necessary workforce will be equal to 250 Seconds / 100 seconds = 2.3 people.

▶ How do we settle this with decimals?

When the calculation of the workforce results are in decimal numbers, I recommend that you rely on this rule of thumb.

If the decimal number is less than X.5, do not add another operator but launch a kaizen event to reduce waste in manual time.

If the decimal number is greater than X.5, add an operator to avoid the risk of not satisfying the customer request and plan kaizen events to reduce waste.

▶ Common mistakes to avoid.

Mistake 1 – Too little time is spent observing the process in a shared manner with the operators.

Both in the case of an existing line and in the case of a new line to be designed, it is essential to involve the people who will work on it.

If there is no shared decision on how much the cycle time of each single operation is, errors will be made in the calculation of the workforce that could have negative impacts on both the customer and the company.

Mistake 2 – Takt Time calculation is not accurate.

During this tutorial, I have highlighted how the accurate calculation of Takt Time is fundamental for all other derived formulas.

Calculate Takt Time accurately.

Mistake 3 – Do not re-evaluate the calculation of the necessary workforce regularly.

The workforce calculation for the production line should be reviewed whenever there is a significant change in the customer’s request.

If the customer request changes and the same Takt Time cannot be maintained, the workforce need must be recalculated.



my name is Mark Anderson a 20+ year Lean Expert.
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